A CASE STUDY ON THE HUMOUROUS LOAD DIFFERENCES AND COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SATIRICALLY/IRONICALLY HUMOUROUS ELEMENTS IN SUBTITLING FROM ENGLISH INTO TURKISH
Izmir University of Economics, Turkey
Being part of a doctoral dissertation, this case study offers an analysis on satirical/ironical humour in English-into-Turkish subtitling and explores translatibility from a linguistic perspective as part of a cultural framework and specifically, investigates the humourous load differences and the relation between the cognitive effects obtained through existing and contextual assumptions, and satire/irony. To this end, as a result of purposeful sampling, one complete episode, Homer the Heretic and one section, The Devil and Homer Simpson of the episode Halloween Special IV of an animated sitcom series “The Simpsons” were chosen. Irony and Satire were analysed from a linguistic angle, whereas Humourous Load Differences between source text (ST) and Target Text (TT) were interpreted from a translational perspective. The results indicate that the reception of this series, as well as of selected episodes by the target viewers heavily relies on the comprehension of satirical/ ironical jokes, and second, that the relation between the cognitive effect and irony/satire suggests that the series benefits much from surprising people through invalidating their existing assumptions. Moreover, the complementary student reports further reinforce the literature findings that humour varies from person to person, from trait to trait and mood to mood.
Key words: Satire; Irony; Humour; Humourous load differences; Cognitive effects.
Apter, M. J. (1982). The Experience of motivation: The theory of psychological reversal. London: Academic Press.
Attardo, S. (2001). Humor and irony in interaction: From mode adoption to failure of detection. In L. Anolli, R. Ciceri & G. Riva (Eds.), Say not to say: New perspectives on miscommunication (pp.165–185). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Cebeci, O. (2008). Komik edebi türler: parodi, satir ve ironi. İstanbul: İthaki.
Clark, H.H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge: Cambrigde University Press.
Delabastita, D. (1989). Translation and mass media. In S. Bassnet & A. Lefevere (Eds.), Translation, history and culture (pp. 97-109). London/New York: Pinter Publishers.
Fine, G.A., & De Soucey, M. (2005). Joking cultures: humor themes as social regulation in group life. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 18(1), 1–22. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/humr.2005.18.1.1
Franklin, B.S. (2006). Towards a theory of postmodern humor: south park as a carnivalesque postmodern narrative impulse (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Waikato. Retrieved from http://adt.waikato.ac.nz/uploads/adt-uow20060918.093940/public/02whole.pdf
Ghazala, H. (2007). Touching upon the translation of the style of irony (English-Arabic). Babel, 53(1), 22–31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.53.1.03gha
Hatim, B. (2000). Communication across cultures. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Herzog, T.R., Harris, A.C., Kropscott, L.S., & Fuller, K.L. (2006). Joke cruelty and joke appreciation revisited. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 19(2), 139–156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HUMOR.2006.007
Hickey, L. (1998). Perlocutionary equivalence: Marking, exegesis and recontextualization. In L. Hickey (Ed.), The Pragmatics of translation (pp. 217–232). Clevedon: Multilingual.
Karamitroglou, F. (2000). Towards a methodology for the investigation of norms in audiovisual translation. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Katan, D. (1999). Translating cultures: An introduction for translators, interpreters and mediators. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation. New York: MacMillan.
Kotthof, H. (2006). Pragmatics of performance and the analysis of conversational humor. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 19(3), 271–304. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HUMOR.2006.015
Krauss, R.M., Curran, N. M., & Ferleger, N. (1983). Expressive conventions and the cross-cultural perception of emotion. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 4(4), 295–305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp0404_1
Kreuz, R. J., & Roberts, R. M. (1993). On satire and parody: The importance of being ironic. Metaphor and Symbol Activity, 8(2), 97–109. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp0404_110.1207/s15327868ms0802_2
Lagerwelf, L. (2007). Irony and sarcasm in advertisements: effects of relevant inappropriateness. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 1702–1721. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.05.002
Lampert, M.D., & Ervin-Tripp, S.M. (2006). Risky laughter: Teasing and self-directed joking among male and female friends. Journal of Pragmatics, 38(1), 51–72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2005.06.004
Mateo, M. (1995). The translation of irony. Meta, 40(1), 171–178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7202/003595ar
Meyer, G. (Writer), & Reardon, J. (Director). (1992). Homer the Heretic [TV Series episode]. In F. Roman (Producer), The Simpsons. USA: FOX Broadcasting Company.
Morreall, J. (2004). Verbal humor without switching scripts and without Non-bona fide communication. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 17(4), 393–400. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/humr.2004.17.4.393
Norrick, N.R. (2004). Nonverbal humor and joke performance. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 17(4), 401–409. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/humr.2004.17.4.401
O’Brien, W.C., Oakley, L.B., Weinstein, E.o.J., Daniels, G., McGrath, D.D., & Canterbury B.B. (Writers), Silverman, D.D.B. (Director). (1993). Halloween Special IV (Treehouse of Horror IV) [TV Series episode]. In R. Raynis (Producer), The Simpsons. USA: FOX Broadcasting Company.
Paolucci, P., & Richardson M. (2006). Dramaturgy, humor and criticism. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 19(1), 27–52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HUMOR.2006.002
Raskin, V. (1985). Semantic mechanisms of humor. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Sierra, J.J.M. (2005). Translating audiovisual humor: A case study. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 13(4), 289–296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09076760608668999
Simpson, P. (2003). On the discourse of satire: Towards a stylistic model of satirical humor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Spanakaki, K. (2007). Translating humor for subtitling. Translation Journal, 11(2). Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://www.accurapid.com/journal/40humorhumor.htm
Suls, J. (1972). A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons: An information processing analysis. In J. H. Goldstein & P. E. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humor (pp. 81–100). New York: Academic Press.
Webster’s Online Dictionary. With multilingual thesaurus translation. (2008). Satire. Retrieved November 28, 2008, from http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/sa/satire.html
Wells, P. (1998). Where everybody knows your name. In S. Wagg (Ed.), Because I tell a joke or two: comedy, politics and social difference (pp. 180–201). London/New York: Routledge.
Wilson, D. (2006). The pragmatics of verbal irony: Echo or pretence? Lingua, 116, 1722–1743. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2006.05.001
Wyer, J.R., & Collins, J.E. (1992). A theory of humor elicitation. Psychological Review, 99(4), 663–688. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-295X.99.4.663
Yetkin, N. (2009). Analyzing the translatibility in subtitled humor in the Turkish cultural and linguistic context (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Ankara University.
Zabalbeascoa, P. (1996). Translating jokes for dubbed television situation comedies. The Translator, 2(2), 235–257. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.1996.10798976
How to cite this article: Yetkin, N. (2011). A case study on the humorous load differences and cognitive effects of satirically /ironically humorous elements in subtitling from English into Turkish. Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Education – JoLIE, 4, 239–254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29302/jolie.2011.4.16
For details on subscription, go to: http://jolie.uab.ro/index.php?pagina=-&id=19&l=en