JoLIE 5/2012

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Nasser Rashidi

College of Literature and Humanities, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Farzaneh Mozaffari

Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran






Recently, critical social theories have penetrated into education and gave rise to a new attitude toward teaching known as critical pedagogy. Teachers in critical pedagogy classroom are missioned to make students aware and sensitive to issues of bias and injustice in their society. Meanwhile, learning English is one of the hurdles that one must endure to get into higher education and find an appropriate job. Hence, English is taught in almost all educational levels. This prevalence of English learning and teaching underscores language teachers’ liability. Therefore, English language teachers can address the whole society and help students to decode the hidden agendas dominating their lives by turning to critical pedagogy in English classes. On the other hand, exposing students majoring in fields relevant to English could plant the seeds of criticality in education system through these students who are future teachers. In line with this trend, the present study aimed at probing possible traces of CP in Iranian EFL higher education, taking into account teachers’ gender, experience, level of teaching (B.A. and M.A.) and place of teaching (Azad or state universities) as probably effective variables. In so doing, a 43-item questionnaire and an observation scheme were developed and validated a priori and then administered to a poll of 218 university professors. Twelve M.A. EFL classes and thirteen B.A. EFL classes were also observed. The collected data was then analyzed to find the existing direction and relationship between the variables. Drawing on statistical procedure, namely t-test and chi-square, and one- way ANOVA, the researchers found no significant difference between the variables under the study except for levels of teaching. The results also indicated the ineffectual practice of CP in Iranian higher education. Possible problem sources were introduced and in some cases corresponding solutions were suggested.


Key words: Critical pedagogy; Banking education; Dialogic method; Social transformation; English teachers.





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How to cite this article: Rashidi, N., & Mozaffari, F. (2012). Education in hope: On the practice of critical pedagogy in Iranian postgraduate and undergraduate EFL classrooms. Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Education – JoLIE, 5, 125-156. DOI:



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