JoLIE 9:2/2016


Back to issue page







Marcin Krawczak

Stanisław Staszic University of Applied Sciences in Piła, Poland






This article presents a view on auditory marketing implemented via the application of background music as one of the offshoots of sensory marketing. To begin with, the psychology of music with its multifarious functions is provided to grasp the meaning and influence of music on human communicating agents. Subsequently, the notions of ecoacustics and soundscape are introduced to show environmental sonic interactions in the public space as well as manipulation by music that is consciously designed to serve particular purposes. Further, auditory marketing is put forward as a superordinate idea to background music. The latter is elucidated by delivering criteria for its selection and employment together with selected findings on customers’ communicative behaviours.


Key words: Background music; Auditory marketing; Psychology of music; Ecoacustics; Soundscape; Consumers’ communicative behaviours.





Areni, C.S., & Kim, D. (1993). The influence of background music on shopping behavior: Classical versus top-forty music in a wine store. Advances in Consumer Research, 20, 336-340.


Areni, C.S. (2003). Exploring managers’ implicit theories of atmospheric music: comparing academic analysis to industry insight. Journal of Services Marketing, 17(2), 161-184. DOI:


Bandur, M. (2001). Aesthetics of total serialism: contemporary research from music to architecture. Basel: Birkhäuser.


Beard, D., & Gloag, K. (2016). Musicology: the key concepts. (2nd edition). New York/Oxon: Routledge.


Berkhout, C. (2015). Retail marketing strategy: Delivering shopper delight. London: Kogan Page Limited.


Bieńkiewicz, M., Gulde P., Schegel, A., & Hermsdőrfer, J. (2014). The use of ecological sounds in facilitation of tool use in apraxia. In W. Jensen, O. Kæseler Andersen & M. Atkin (Eds.), Replace, repair, restore, relieve – bridging clinical and engineering solutions in neurorehabilitation (pp. 289-294). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.


Brett, P, ‎Wood, E., & ‎Thomas, G.C. (Eds.). (2006). Queering the pitch: The new gay and lesbian musicology. New York/Oxon: Routledge.


Brodsky, W. (2015). Driving with music: cognitive-behavioural implications. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing.


Brown, S., & Theorell, T. (2006). The social uses of background music for personal enhancement. In S. Brown, & U. Volgsten (Eds.), Music and manipulation: on the social uses and social control of music (pp. 126-160). New York: Berghahn Books.


Cassidy, G., & Macdonald, R.A.R. (2007). The effect of background music and background noise on the task performance of introverts and extraverts. Psychology of Music, 35(3), 517–537. DOI:


Clements-Cortés, A. (2014). Background music. In W.F. Thomson (Ed.), Music in the social and behavioral sciences: an encyclopedia (pp. 119-122). New York: Sage Publications Inc.


Crist, S.A., & Marvin, R.M. (Eds). (2004). Historical musicology: Sources, methods, interpretations. Rochester: University of Rochester Press.


De Groot, A.M.B. (2006). Effects of stimulus characteristics and background music on foreign language vocabulary learning and forgetting. Language Learning, 56(3), 463–506. DOI:


Farina, A. (2014). Soundscape ecology: principles, patterns, methods and applications. Dordrecht: Springer.


Gabrielsson, A., & Lindstrom, E. (2001). The influence of musical structure on emotional expression. In P.N. Juslin, & J.A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and emotion: Theory and research. New York: Oxford University Press, 223-248.


Gardner, M.P., & Siomkos G.J. (1986). Toward a methodology for assessing effects of an-store Atmosphere. Advances in Consumer Research, 13, 27-31.


Goudena, P.P. (1988). Two perspectives on egocentric speech. In P. Jordens, & J. A. Lalleman (Eds.), Language development (pp. 71-82). Dordrecht: Foris Publications.


Graakær, N.J. (2014). Manipulation. In W.F. Thomson (Ed.), Music in the social and behavioral sciences: an encyclopedia (pp. 667-669). New York: Sage Publications Inc.


Greer D., Rumbold, I., & ‎King, J. (Eds.). (2000). Musicology and sister disciplines: Past, present, future: Proceedings of the 16th international congress of the international musicological society, London, 1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Hooper, G. (2006). The discourse of musicology. Hants: Ashgate.


Hultén, B., Broweus, N., & Van Dijk, M. (2009). Sensory marketing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Husch, J.A. (1984). Music of the workplace: a study of Muzak culture (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Massachusetts. 


Jackson, D.M. (2003). Sonic branding: An essential guide to the art and science of sonic branding. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.


Juslin, P. (2001). Communicating emotion in music performance: A review and a theoretical framework. In Juslin P.N., &. Sloboda, J.A (Eds.), Music and emotion: Theory and research, pp. 309-337.


Kellaris, J.J., Cox, A.D. & Cox, D. (1993). The effect of background music on ad processing: A contingency explanation. Journal of Marketing, 57(4), 114-125. DOI:


Kerman, J. (1985). Contemplating music: Challenges to musicology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.


Kimmel, A.J. (2013). Psychological foundations of marketing. London/New York: Routledge.


Krause, B. (2012). The great animal orchestra. New York: Little, Brown and Company.


Krishna, A. (Ed.). (2010). Sensory marketing. New York: Routledge.


Mantie, R., & Smith, G.D. (Eds.). (2016). The Oxford handbook of music making and leisure. New York: Oxford University Press.


Marketing sensoryczny – definicja i przykłady. Retrieved July 09, 2015, from sensoryczny-a-sluch


Milliman, R.E. (1982). Using background music to affect the behavior of supermarket shoppers. Journal of Marketing, 46(3), 86-91. DOI:


Morrison, M., & Mundell, M. (2012). Connecting, engaging and exciting shoppers. In Ståhlberg, M., & Maila, V. (Eds.), Shopper marketing: How to increase purchase decisions at the point of sale (2ed.). London: Kogan Page Limited, pp. 81-86.


Music. Retrieved July 09, 2015, from


North, A.C., & Hargreaves, D.J. (1996). The effects of music on responses to a dining area. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 55-64. DOI:


North, A.C., & Hargreaves, D.J. (2005). Musical communication in commercial contexts. In D. Miell, R. MacDonald, & D. J.  Hargreaves (Eds.), Musical communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 405-422.


Patson, L.L.M., & Tippett, L.J. (2011). The effect of background music on cognitive performance in musicians and nonmusicians. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29(2), 173–183.       


Payne, S.R., Davies, W.J., & Adams, M.D. (2009). Research into the practical and policy applications of soundscape concepts and techniques in urban areas (NANR 200). Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Retrieved July 07, 2015, from


Pijanowski, B.C., Villanueva-Riviera, L.J., Dumyahn, S.L., Farina, A., Karuse, B., Napoletano, B.M., Gage, S.H., & Pieretti, N. (2011). Soundscape ecology: the science of sound in the landscape. Bioscience, 61(3), 203-216.


Privacy of sound and individual freedom of musical choice. Retrieved July 09, 2015, from XML2HTMLen.asp?fileid=16259&lang=en


Puppel, S. (2004). An outline of a domain-resource-agent-access-management (DRAAM) model of human communication: towards an ecology of human communication. Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Ecocommunication. Electronic Journal Oikeios Logos 1. Retrieved July 08, 2015, from, 1-27


Radocy, R.E., & Boyle, J.D. (1979/2012). Psychological foundations of musical behavior (5th ed.). Springfield/IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd.


Roggeveen, A., Grewal, D., de La Paz Toldos, M. González, E.M., Valdez, A. Franco, A., & Villarroel Ordenes, F. (2017). The role of in-store and online retailing factors. In Stieler, M. (Ed.), Creating marketing magic and innovative future marketing trends: Proceedings of the 2016 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 553-557.


Schafer, R.M. (1977). The tuning of the world. New York: Random House.


Scherer, K., & Coutinho E. (2013). How music creates emotion: A multifactorial process approach. In Cochrane, T., Fantini, B., & Scherer, K.R. (Eds.), The emotional power of music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 121-146.


Scott, D.B.  (Ed.). (2009). The Ashgate research companion to popular musicology. Farnham: Ashgate.


Solie, R.A. (Ed.). (1995). Musicology and difference: Gender and sexuality in music scholarship. Berkley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.


Sterne, J. (2006). Sounds like the mall of America: programmed music and the architectonics of commercial space. In J. C. Post (Ed.), Ethnomusicology: a contemporary reader (pp.33-52). New York: Routledge.


Stratton, V.N., & Zalanowski, A. (1984). The effect of background music on verbal interaction in groups. Journal of Music Therapy, 21. 16-26. DOI:


Tan, S.L., Pfordresher, P., & Harré, R. (2010). Psychology of music: from sound to significance. Hove/New York: Psychology Press.


The European Parliament Resolution 848. (1985). Retrieved July 09, 2015, from ViewPDF.asp?FileID=16259&lang=en 


Thomson, W.F. (Ed.). (2014). Music in the social and behavioral sciences: an encyclopedia. New York: Sage Publications Inc.


Valenti, C., & Riviere, J. (2008). Marketing dissertation: the concept of sensory marketing, Halmstad University. Retrieved July 15, 2015, from


Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published 1934).


Weiss, M.W., & Schellenberg, G.  (2011). Augmenting cognition with music. In I. Segev and H. Markram (Eds.), Augmenting cognition (pp. 103-125). Lausanne: EPFL Press.


Weiss, M.W., & Schellenberg, E.G. (2013). Music and cognitive abilities. In D. Deutsch (Ed.), The psychology of music (3rd edition) (pp. 499-550). Amsterdam: Elsevier.


Yalch, R., & Spangenberg, E. (1990). Effects of store music on shopping behaviour. The Journal of Services Marketing, 4, 31-39.


Yang, Y-H., & Chen H.H. (2011). Music emotion recognition. Boca Raton/FL: CRC Press.


Zhu, R., & Meyers-Levy, J. (2005). Distinguishing between the meanings of music: When background music affects product perception. Journal of Marketing Research, 42(3), 333-345. DOI:


Ziv, N., Hoftman, M., & Geyer, M. (2012). Music and moral judgement: The effect of background music on the evaluation of ads promoting unethical behavior. Psychology of music, 40(12), 738-760. DOI:



How to cite this article: Krawczak, M. (2016). Communication via background music as an instrument of auditory marketing. Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Education – JoLIE, 9(2), 67-78. DOI:



For details on subscription, go to: