A CORPUS-BASED APPROACH TO THE CONCEPTUALISATION OF THE ECONOMY IN BUSINESS ENGLISH PRESS
1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba Iulia, Romania
The paper attempts to explore different conceptualisations of economy in British business English press. Our approach is based on corpus, we incorporated a corpus encompassing business articles retrieved from British quality press ranging from 2013 to 2016. In our investigation, we rely on previous research on the figurative aspects pertaining to business discourse.
The conceptual metaphors were identified with the help of concordancing programs, headwords from different source and target domains were inserted in the concordancing program and the findings were manually processed. In certain cases, linguistic metaphors processed with the help of concordancing programs do not necessarily embody conceptual metaphors, these are mainly revealed through manual processing. The findings draw on the fact that figurative uses and conceptual metaphors easily percolate business English discourse. We are aware of the limitations of this research as the study cannot encompass all the categories conceptualising the economy. To this end categories such as economy is war, economy is an animal, economy is a container, economy is a liquid will be the subject of future research.
Key words: Business English press; Conceptual metaphors; corpus; Source domain; Target domain.
Boers, F., & Stengers, H. (2008). Adding sound to the picture. Motivating the lexical composition of metaphorical idioms in English, Dutch and Spanish. In M.S. Zanotto, L. Cameron, & M.C. Cavalcanti (Eds.), Confronting metaphor in use. An applied linguistic approach (pp. 63-78). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Cameron, L., & Low, G. (Eds.). (1999). Researching and applying metaphors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cameron, L., & Deignan, A. (2003). Combining large and small corpora to investigate tuning devices around metaphor in spoken discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 18(3), 149-160. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1803_02
Charteris-Black, J., & Ennis, T. (2001). A comparative study of metaphor in Spanish and English financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes, 20(3), 249-266.
Charteris-Black, J., & Musolff, A. (2003). 'Battered hero' or 'innocent victim'? A comparative study of metaphors for euro trading in British and German financial reporting. English for Specific Purposes, 22,153-176.
Crawford Camiciottoli, B. (2012). 'Bigger, a lot bigger, massively much bigger': A comparative study of hyperbole in business and economics lectures. In H. Herrera-Soler, & M. White (Eds.), Metaphors and mills. Figurative language in business and economics (pp. 201-222). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Deignan, A. (1999). Corpus-based research into metaphor. In L. Cameron, & G. Low (Eds.), Researching and applying metaphors (pp.177-199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Deignan, A. (2005). Metaphor and corpus linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Deignan, A. (2006). The grammar of linguistic metaphor. In A. Stefanowitsch, & S. Th. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approach to metaphor and metonymy (pp.106-122). Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Deignan, A. (2008a). Corpus linguistics and metaphor. In R.W. Gibbs (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought (pp. 280-294). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Deignan, A. (2008b). Corpus linguistic data and conceptual metaphor theory. In M. S. Zanotto, L. Cameron, & M. C. Cavalcanti (Eds.), Confronting metaphor in use. An applied linguistic approach (pp. 149-162). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Goatly, A. (1997). The language of metaphors. London & New York: Routledge.
Herțeg, C. (2016). Money and money-related metaphors in business English. In J.G. Laborda (Ed.), New trends and issues proceedings on humanities and social sciences, 2(7), 54-59. Retrieved from http://sproc.org/ojs//index.php/pntsbs/article/view/1180. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18844/gjhss.v2i7.1180
Herțeg, C., Popescu, T., & Iordăchescu, G.-D. (2016). Economic metaphors in business English. In A. Rahimi (Ed.), New trends and issues proceedings on humanities and social sciences, 2(9), 12-17. Retrieved from http://sproc.org/ojs//index.php/pntsbs/article/view/1079. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18844/gjhss.v2i9.1079
Herțeg, M-C. (2015). A corpus-based approach to money metaphors in business English. In T. Popescu, & G.-D. Iordăchescu (Eds.), Universals and variants of English and Romanian business metaphors. A corpus-based conceptual mapping of contemporary journalese from a pedagogical approach. Proceedings of the Project Kick-off meeting (pp. 51-63). București: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.
Holmgreen, L.-L. (2012). Framing a bank: Reputation management during financial crises. In H. Herrera-Soler, & M. White (Eds.), Metaphors and mills. Figurative language in business and economics (pp. 243-264). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Koller, V. (2006). Of critical importance: Using electronic text corpora to study metaphor in business media discourse. In A. Stefanowitsch, & S. Th. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approach to metaphor and metonymy (pp. 237-266). Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Koller, V. (2008). Brothers in arms. Contradictory metaphors in contemporary marketing discourse. In M.S. Zanotto, L. Cameron, & M.C. Cavalcanti (Eds.), Confronting metaphor in use. An applied linguistic approach (pp. 103-125). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Kovecses, Z. (2005). Metaphors in culture. Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kovecses, Z. (2010). Metaphor. A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kovecses, Z. (2011). Methodological issues in conceptual metaphor theory. In S. Handl, & H-J. Schmid (Eds.), Windows to the mind: Metaphor, metonymy and conceptual blending (pp.23-29). Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Littlemore, J. (2008). The relationship between associative thinking, analogical reasoning, image formation and metaphoric extension strategies. In M.S. Zanotto, L. Cameron, & M. Cavalcanti (Eds.), Confronting metaphor in use. An applied linguistic approach (pp. 199-222). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Martin, J.H. (2006). A corpus-based analysis of context effects on metaphor comprehension. In A. Stefanowitsch, & S. Th. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approach to metaphor and metonymy (pp.214-236). Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Popescu, T. (2017). Metaphorical conceptualisations of ECONOMY in Romanian and British business press. Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Education- JoLIE, 10(2), 93-110. Doi: https://doi.org/10.29302/jolie.2017.10.2.8
Resche, C. (2012). Towards a better understanding of metaphorical networks in the language of economics: The importance of theory-constitutive metaphors. In H. Herrera-Soler, & M. White (Eds.), Metaphors and mills. Figurative language in business and economics (pp. 77-102). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Sardinha, T.B. (2008). Metaphor probabilities in corpora. In M. S. Zanotto, L. Cameron, & M.C. Cavalcanti (Eds.), Confronting metaphor in use. An applied linguistic approach (pp. 127-147). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Sardinha, T.B. (2012). Metaphors of the Brazilian economy from 1964 to 2010. In H. Herrera-Soler, & M. White (Eds.), Metaphors and mills. Figurative language in business and economics (pp. 103-126). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Semino, E. (2006). A corpus-based study of metaphors for speech activity in British English. In A. Stefanowitsch, & Th. S. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approach to metaphor and metonymy (pp. 36-62). Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Skorczynska, H. (2012). Metaphor and knowledge specialisation in business management. The case of project management discourse. In H. Herrera-Soler, & M. White (Eds.), Metaphors and mills. Figurative language in business and economics (pp. 265-290). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Skorczynska, H., & Ahrens, K. (2015). A corpus-based study of metaphor signaling variations in three genres. Text & Talk- An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language Discourse, 35(3), 359-381.
Sporiș, V. (2016). Metafora conceptuală în actualitatea românească. „Politică şi Război” la TV. Annales Universitatis Apulensis. Series Philologica, 17(2), 394-409.
Stefanowitsch, A. (2006). Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. In A. Stefanowitsch, & S. Th. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approach to metaphor and metonymy (pp.63-105). Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Vereza, S. (2008). Exploring metaphors in corpora. A study of ‘war’ in corpus generated data. In M.S. Zanotto, L. Cameron, & M.C. Cavalcanti (Eds.), Confronting metaphor in use. An applied linguistic approach (pp. 163-180). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Zanotto, M.S., Cameron, L., & Cavalcanti, M.C. (2008). (Eds.). Confronting metaphor in use. An applied linguistic approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
White, M. (2003). Metaphors and economics. The case of growth. English for specific purposes, 22(2), 131-151.
America’s debt ceiling. Hitting the roof. If Congress fails to lift the limit on America’s debts, the consequences are uncertain but definitely unpleasant. (2013, October 12). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21587795-if-congress-fails-lift-limit-americas-debts-consequences-are
America’s stockmarket. Better than the alternatives. The Dow reaches a record high. (2013, March 9). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21573114-dow-reaches-record-high-better-alternatives
Argentina’s disputed debts. Feeding the vultures. The government has struck one deal with holdout creditors. Others will be harder. (2016, February 6). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21690109-government-has-struck-one-deal-holdout-creditors-others-will-be
Business and corruption. Robber barons, beware. A crackdown on corruption has spread anxiety among China’s business elite (2015, October 24). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/china/21676814-crackdown-corruption-has-spread-anxiety-among-chinas-business-elite-robber-barons-beware
Celebrity economists. The sages of the pampas. Like the tango, the fame of Argentine economists is tinged with sadness (2014, November 29). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21635016-tango-fame-argentine-economists-tinged-sadness-sages
China’s banks. Ten days in June. How will China’s lenders respond to the Shibor shock? (2013, July 6). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21580501-how-will-chinas-lenders-respond-shibor-shock-ten-days-june
China’s stockmarket. Dynastic bull. There is good reason for shares to rise, but a manic market is a policy headache. (2014, December 13). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21636094-there-good-reason-shares-rise-manic-market-policy
Europe’s credit crunch. Mend the money machine. The woes of small businesses in Italy and Spain threaten to be the next twist in the euro saga. (2013, May 4). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21577068-woes-small-businesses-italy-and-spain-threaten-be-next-twist euro?zid=297&ah=3ae0fe266c7447d8a0c7ade5547d62ca
Financing Europe’s small firms. Don’t bank on the banks. Small businesses seek alternatives as banks leave them in the lurch. (2014, August 16). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21612251-small-businesses-seek-alternatives-banks-leave-them-lurch-dont-bank
Japan’s equity and bond markets. Shocking. Volatile bond yields may spell trouble for Abenomics. (2013, June 1). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21578701-volatile-bond-yields-may-spell-trouble-abenomics-shocking
Investing in government debt. Where others fear to tread. The controversial strategy of a bargain-hunting bond trader. (2014, November 29). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21635015-controversial-strategy-bargain-hunting-bond-trader-where-others-fear
Investing in a world of low yields. Many unhappy returns. Pension funds and endowments are too optimistic. (2015, November 21). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21678812-pension-funds-and-endowments-are-too-optimistic-many-unhappy-returns
Italian business. Brave old world. Backs to the wall, Italian companies are turning to the markets. (2014, January 4). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/business/21592657-backs-wall-italian-companies-are turning-markets-brave-old-world
Lithuania and the euro. Strange bedfellows. The euro zone’s newest member faces an uphill struggle. (2014, December 6). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21635525-euro-zones-newest-member-faces-uphill-struggle-strange-bedfellows
Mexico’s economy. Pass the tequila. Two decades after the peso crisis, Mexico faces new shocks. (2014, December 13). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21636106-two-decades-after-peso-crisis-mexico-faces-new-shocks-pass-tequila
Negative interest rates: Bankers v mattresses (2015, November 28). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/category/print-sections/finance-and-economics21679231-central-banks-are-still-testing-limits-how-low-interest-rates-can-go-bankers
Over the horizon. Three issues that should preoccupy managers in the next 50 years (2014, September 6th). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/business/21615586-three-issues-should-preoccupy-managers-next-50-years-over-horizon
Recapitalising Greek banks. The damage. The bill is cheaper than expected (2015, November 7). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21677646-bill-cheaper-expected-damage
Siemens. Fixing the German dynamo. Joe Kaeser is transforming Siemens’s structure; changing its culture will be harder (2014, July 26). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/business/21608637-joe-kaeser-transforming-siemenss-structure-changing-its-culture-will-be-harder-fixing
Steel. An inferno of unprofitability. The world’s overcapacity in steelmaking is getting worse, and profits are evaporating (2013, July 6). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/business/21580458-worlds-overcapacity-steelmaking getting-worse-and-profits-are-evaporating-inferno
Taiwan’s economy. Straitened circumstances. Weaker growth exposes the downside of ties with China. (2015, November 14). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21678276-weaker-growth-exposes-downside-ties-china-straitened-circumstances
The Big Mac index. A basket of sliders. Our flame-grilled guide to currencies suggests the dollar is getting dearer (2014, July 26). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21608647-our-flame-grilled-guide-currencies-suggests-dollar-getting-dearer
The euro-zone economy. Cyclical stagnation. The recovery grinds to a halt (2014, August 16) The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21612254-recovery-grinds-halt-cyclical-stagnation
The Fed and emerging markets. The secular sulk. America’s looming rate rise will expose more frailties in emerging markets (2015, December 12). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21679817-americas-looming-rate-rise-will-expose-more-frailties-emerging-markets
The Fed has at last raised rates. What happens next? (2016, January 2). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21684797-fed-has-last-raised-rates-what-happens-next-exit-pursued-bear
The Irish economy. Fitter yet fragile. Ireland’s success in attracting foreign investment has its drawbacks. (2013, January 5). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21569049-irelands-success-attracting-foreign-investment-has-its-drawbacks-fitter-yet
Anderlini, J. (2014, April 16). Towers where no lights burn at heart of China’s puzzle. Empty apartments critical to economy’s health. The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/b4bb0140-c576-11e3-a7d4-00144feabdc0
GuthrieThe Bank of England’s new old buffer. Cost of the additional capital requirement will be around £10bn. (2015, December 1st). The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/8e434216-980b-11e5-95c7-d47aa298f769
JenkinsLessons from the plight of the Greek banks. Powerful morality tale playing out for an indebted world. (FT, 2015 June 22). The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/27a640ce-18b0-11e5-8201-cbdb03d71480
Makan, A. (2013, February 21). Tumbling price has goldbugs nervous. More than $300 down from a $1,900-an-ounce record in 201.1 The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/a40e2100-7c35-11e2-bf52-00144feabdc0
PolitiItaly rules out public money for banks that failed stress tests. Renzi defends its bank system after failed ECB health checks. (2014, October 27). The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/5c19933e-5de3-11e4-b7a2-00144feabdc0
Sanderson, R. (2013, March 14). Bank of Italy moves to curb bonus payouts. Large banks pressed to increase bad loan provisions. The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/aab031f0-8cc6-11e2-8ee0-00144feabdc0
Wagstyl, S. (2013, June 14). Indonesia rate rise unlikely to set precedent for emerging markets. Most emerging markets’ central banks want to keep rates low. The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/298f991e-d440-11e2-a464-00144feab7de
Wheatley, J. (2015, February 15). Corporate bonds: Emerging bubble. Signs of distress are appearing in companies’ debt. The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/d31fe990-b2a4-11e4-b234-00144feab7de
AllenHalf of recent UK graduates stuck in non-graduate jobs, says ONS. (2013, July 14). The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/nov/19/half-recent-uk-graduates-stuck-jobs-ons
Allen, K. (2015, July 8). Why is China’s stock market in crisis? The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/jul/08/china-stock-market-crisis-explained
Card, J. (2015, May 8). What does a Conservative majority mean for small businesses? The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/small-business-network/2015/may/08/what-does-conservative-majority-mean-for-small-businesses.
Elliott, L. (2013, January 23). IMF sees hope beyond the crisis but cuts world growth predictions. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/jan/23/imf-world-growth-forecast-davos
Hellier(2015, December 27). Five factors that shook the world’s markets in 2015. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/dec/27/five-factors-shocked-stock-markets-2015
Inman, Ph., ElliottNardelli (2015, July 2). IMF says Greece needs extra €60bn in funds and debt relief. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/jul/02/imf-greece-needs-extra-50bn-euros
Kollewe(2014, December 18). France fines 13 consumer goods firms €951m for price-fixing. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/dec/18/france-fines-unilever-reckitt-benckiser-procter-and-gamble-gillette-price-fixing
Rankin, J. (2013, December 25). The business year in review: the signs of recovery. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/dec/25/business-year-in-review-the-signs-of-recovery
Stewart(2013, August 30). Bank of England: consumers turn to loans, credit cards and overdrafts. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/aug/30/bank-of-england-consumers-turn-to-loans-credit-cards-overdrafts
Stewart(2015, April 9). UK businesses report slower growth in first quarter of 2015. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/apr/09/uk-reports-slowdown-in-economic-expansion-first-quarter-2015
Stiglitz, J. (2015, June 29). Joseph Stiglitz: How I would vote in the Greek referendum. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/jun/29/joseph-stiglitz-how-i-would-vote-in-the-greek-referendum
WalkerRusheSteinStephenBrodzinskyMilesDehghanElliott(2015, December 30). Recession, retrenchment, revolution? Impact of low crude prices on oil powers. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/dec/30/oil-iran-saudi-arabia-russia-venezuela-nigeria-libya
Weinreb, E. (2015, January 7). 2015 prediction: sustainability will be written into every job description. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2015/jan/07/2015-prediction-sustainability-jobs-careers-employers
Cooper, R. (2013, June 21). Markets across Europe slipped further on Friday, rounding off a turbulent week, as fresh uncertainty in Greece compounded anxieties over America pulling the plug on stimulus measures. Adding to American concerns were fresh anxieties over Greece. The smallest party in Greece’s ruling coalition pulled out of the government after a row over the abrupt closure of the state broadcaster. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/markets/10135685/Greek-uncertainty-leaves-markets-in-red-at-end-of-turbulent-week.html
Critchlow(2014, August 31). Rising prices and bad weather hit growth in British public cycling. The Tour of Britain starts next weekend, but industry experts say the much-heralded bike revolution has not happened. The surge in interest in cycling has so far had a mixed impact on the cycling trade. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/11067090/Rising-prices-and-bad-weather-hit-growth-in-British-public-cycling.html
Evans-Pritchard(2013, January 1). Stocks to soar as world money catches fire, Calvinist Europe left behind. Bears beware. A monetary revolution is underway. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/ambroseevans_pritchard/9773911/Stocks-to-soar-as-world-money-catches-fire-Calvinst-Europe-left-behind.html
Khan (2015, October 16). Portugal’s Socialists poised to form new Left-wing government. Party leader Antonio Costa says he can offer stable government, with suggestions he will form alliance with extreme Communist and anti-euro parties. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/11937638/Portugals-Socialists-poised-to-form-new-Left-wing-government.html
Ruddick, G. (2013, September 12). ‘How can you have a recovery when people are getting poorer?’ Recovery? What recovery? That appears to be the message from the retailers who have updated the market on trading this week. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/10305897/How-can-you-have-a-recovery-when-people-are-getting-poorer.html
Wallace(2015, October 19 Small firms hope for banks’ stranglehold to be smashed open. The Competition and Markets Authority could force banks to make it easier for small firms to jump ship if they are unhappy with their service or can get a better deal elsewhere. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/11940822/Small-firms-hope-for-banks-stranglehold-to-be-smashed-open.html
Warner(2013, February 25) Trillion pound cash mountain to the rescue? It’s unwise to bank on it. Meaningless though it might otherwise be, the downgrade in Britain’s credit rating at least acts as a reminder of just how deeply mired in post-crisis gloom the UK economy really is, and quite how difficult extracting the country from the ruination of more than a decade of banking excess and burgeoning social spending commitments is proving. Make it easy and enjoyable for your customers to spend more. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/jeremy-warner/9893496/Trillion-pound-cash-mountain-to-the-rescue-Its-unwise-to-bank-on-it.html
Warner December 16 To save itself, Greece must exit the euro. A Syriza election victory threatens default and disorderly exit from the euro for Greece. This would be a disaster for all. But done properly, the reintroduction of sovereign currencies within the eurozone would provide a bright new beginning. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/jeremy-warner/11297667/To-save-itself-Greece-must-exit-the-euro.html
How to cite this article: Herțeg, M.-C. (2019). A corpus-based approach to the conceptualisation of the economy in business English press. Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Education – JoLIE, 12(3), 73-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29302/jolie.2019.12.3.5
For details on subscription, go to: http://jolie.uab.ro/index.php?pagina=-&id=19&l=en
This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS – UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-2785.